Travel will be heavily affected by industrial action during this year’s busy festive period.
Rail and aviation unions are threatening strikes in December and January across Europe. It is likely to cause disruption as people try to get home for the holidays.
So where are strikes taking place in this Europe? Christmas?
International rail services: Eurostar strikes over Christmas
More than 100 Eurostar security staff are set to strike during Christmas. They will walk out on December 16, 18, 22 and 23, with the RMT union saying the industrial action will “severely affect” trains.
Eurostar and Mitie, the company that employs the security staff, say they will update passengers with any impact on services.
What strikes are happening in Belgium this Christmas?
Unions ACV Puls and CNE have told budget airline Ryanair that “staff will express their anger” over the holidays if their demands over the treatment of workers are not met.
They are considering a strike at Christmas after the budget airline closed its base of operations in the country, forcing staff to work elsewhere in Europe. The exact dates of the strike have not yet been confirmed.
What strikes happen in France at Christmas?
Unions in France have called a continuous strike from December 2-4. It is expected to cause major disruption to the nation’s rail network.
Only four out of 10 trains will run on the high-speed TGV and Intercités lines, but local services will not be affected.
Although hours will theoretically return to normal on Monday, there will likely be some lingering effects of the strikes.
International services will also be affected with only one in three TGVs to Switzerland, one in two to Germany and one in three in Italy running. There will be no services to Spain during the strike.
Union leaders have also submitted strike notices for the Christmas and New Year weekends, although there is no confirmation yet whether this action will take place.
Unions in France are also threatening budget airline easyJet with action over the Christmas period. The SNPNC-FO union, which represents hostesses and stewards, has warned there is a “very significant risk” of strikes, although there are no confirmed dates yet.
What strikes are happening in Portugal this Christmas?
On December 8 and 9, TAP Air cabin crew will go on strike over pay cuts, staff shortages and poor working conditions.
The airline has already announced the cancellation of 360 flights, and the withdrawal could affect around 50,000 passengers Portugal.
What strikes are happening in Spain this Christmas?
Ryanair cabin crew union members based in Spain have been on strike for five months.
The action started on August 8 and will run until January 7, Monday through Thursday every week. May affect travel from airports including Alicante, BarcelonaMadrid and Málaga.
But Ryanair said it did not expect the strike to cause so much disruption for passengers.
What strikes are happening in the UK this Christmas?
Railway strikes they take place in the UK throughout December and into January. The Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers’ Union (RMT) has announced that its 40,000 members will walk out for eight days over the festive season.
The strike dates will be December 13-14 and 16-17, as well as January 3-4 and 6-7. Almost every train operator will be affected as RMT members at National Rail and 13 companies go on strike.
Only one in five trains is expected to run on strike days, and on days either side – known as “shoulder days” – services will run at around 60% of normal.
Timetables are likely to be adjusted to cope with the withdrawal, so be sure to check that your train is still running before you travel.
Hundreds of baggage handlers at Heathrow Airport also departs at Christmas time. They are on strike for 72 hours from 4am on December 16th.
The Unite union expects to cause some disruption for passengers in the run-up to the busy holiday period.
Members of the Commercial and Public Services Union (PCS), who represent Passport Office and Border Force staff, they also voted for a Christmas strike. The dates are yet to be confirmed, but this action could lead to queues at airports and ports.